For the first time, it was possible to make books—and, by extension, knowledge—widely available. In government, city-states and regional and national principalities supplanted the fading hegemony of the empire and the Papacy and obliterated many of the local feudal jurisdictions that had covered Europe, although within states power continued to be monopolized by elites drawing their strength from both landed and mercantile wealth.
Human excellence and virtue is now seen as valuable in itself, in this present world of ours, rather than as a necessary qualification for entry to a world beyond. Social and political structures in Italy A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence.
Bracciolini, employed as secretary at the papal court in Rome fromuses the ancient script for important documents.
The End of the Italian Renaissance By the end of the 15th century, Italy was being torn apart by one war after another. For example, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi applied the elements of classical Roman architecture—shapes, columns and especially proportion—to his own buildings.
A succession of brilliant painters— Giovanni BelliniGiorgioneTitian, Tintorettoand Paolo Veronese —developed the lyrical Venetian painting style that combined pagan subject matter, sensuous handling of colour and paint surface, and a love of extravagant settings. Instead of being painted with the customary tempera of the period, the work is painted with translucent oil glazes that produce brilliant jewel-like colour and a glossy surface.
Today, they are viewed as great works of art, but at the time they were seen and used mostly as devotional objects. This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history.
Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Iberia and Sicilywhich became important centers for this transmission of ideas.
Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe. For all but exceptional individuals and a few marginal groups, the standards of behaviour continued to arise from traditional social and moral codes.
Arguing that such chance seems improbable, other historians have contended that these "Great Men" were only able to rise to prominence because of the prevailing cultural conditions at the time.
Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. In art particularly sculpture stylistic hints of the coming Renaissance can be seen well before Printers in Venice later in the century, attempting to reflect the classical spirit of humanismturn to the scripts of Bracciolini and Niccoli.
The effect of humanism was to help men break free from the mental strictures imposed by religious orthodoxy, to inspire free inquiry and criticismand to inspire a new confidence in the possibilities of human thought and creations. Italy was particularly badly hit by the plague, and it has been speculated that the resulting familiarity with death caused thinkers to dwell more on their lives on Earth, rather than on spirituality and the afterlife.
Leonardo da Vinci —Michelangelo —and Raphael — Leonardo da Vinci, the ultimate "Renaissance man," practiced all the visual arts and studied a wide range of topics, including anatomy, geology, botany, hydraulics and flight. On the other hand, central Italian painters began to adopt the oil medium soon after The Portinari Altarpiece was brought to Florence in Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the medieval Islamic world normally in translationbut Greek literary, oratorical and historical works such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars.
Copying out their discoveries, they aspire also to an authentic script. Events at the end of the Middle Ages, particularly beginning in the 12th century, set in motion a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations that culminated in the Renaissance. Visit Website Did you know?In fact, the Renaissance (in Italy and in other parts of Europe) was considerably more complicated than that: For one thing, in many ways the period we call the Renaissance was not so different from the era that preceded it.
Renaissance, (French: “Rebirth”) period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages and conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in Classical scholarship and values.
The origins of Renaissance art can be traced to Italy in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. During this so-called “proto-Renaissance” period (), Italian scholars and artists saw themselves as reawakening to the ideals and achievements of.
Only in the world of learning is the link between the Renaissance and the ancient world unmistakably clear. Only among Petrarch and his followers in the 14th and 15th century is the rebirth of the past (rinascimento in Italian) a conscious aim.
If there was a Renaissance “rediscovery of the world and of man,” as the 19th-century historians Jules Michelet (in the seventh volume of his History of France) and Jacob Burckhardt (in The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy ) asserted, it can be found mainly in literature and art, influenced by the latest and most successful of a long .Download