A disease may have more than one sufficient cause, with each sufficient cause being composed of several component causes that may or may not overlap.
Over time, the concept of agent has been broadened to include chemical and physical causes of disease or injury.
A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy pp.
But because lung cancer can develop in persons who have never been exposed to either smoking or asbestos, a proper model for lung cancer would have to show at least one more Sufficient Cause Pie that does not include either component B or component C.
Neither is smoking a necessary cause, because a small fraction of lung cancer victims have never smoked. Host refers to the human who can get the disease. Presence of Pneumocystis carinii organisms is therefore a necessary but not sufficient cause of pneumocystis pneumonia.
The component causes may include intrinsic host factors as well as the agent and the environmental factors of the agent-host-environment triad.
Community health care providers suggest voluntary counseling and testing for HIV treatment programs as good strategies. Describe its causation in terms of agent, host, and environment.
Opportunities for exposure are often influenced by behaviors such as sexual practices, hygiene, and other personal choices as well as by age and sex. Am J Epidemiol ; The environmental factors can be social and economic conditions such as poverty, crowding, and frequent mobility of people that carry agents easily to other environments.
One such model was proposed by Rothman inand has come to be known as the Causal Pies. They expand the lifespan of people with HIV. Hire Writer This virus can enter the bloodstream through linings in the mouth, anus, or sex organs through broken skin.
Smoking is not a sufficient cause by itself, however, because not all smokers develop lung cancer. After all the pieces of a pie fall into place, the pie is complete — and disease occurs. HIV medications are more widely available than ever. In this model, disease results from the interaction between the agent and the susceptible host in an environment that supports transmission of the agent from a source to that host.
Integrating spirituality into mental health care. Susceptibility and response to an agent are influenced by factors such as genetic composition, nutritional and immunologic status, anatomic structure, presence of disease or medications, and psychological makeup.
Environment refers to extrinsic factors that affect the agent and the opportunity for exposure. Combination of medications at least three of antiretroviral can be used to control the virus Moss, WHO support these countries that drug companies provide medications at low cost.
For example, lung cancer may result from a sufficient cause that includes smoking as a component cause. For example, elimination of smoking component B would prevent lung cancer from sufficient causes I and II, although some lung cancer would still occur through sufficient cause III. For each of the following risk factors and health outcomes, identify whether they are necessary causes, sufficient causes, or component causes.
Agent, host, and environmental factors interrelate in a variety of complex ways to produce disease. HIV is not only a physiological stressor, but also a significant psychological stressor. Sufficient Cause I includes both smoking B and asbestos C.
Stigma, discrimination, misconception, local social and cultural taboos also contribute to increasing number of HIV infections in developing countries where people do not talk about them or people are not educated about them. Despite education and prevention efforts, reducing HIV infection is challenging.
Responsibility of secondary prevention: If the environment is less habitable, the host susceptibility is reduced, and the agent source is also reduced or eliminated as well. A component that appears in every pie or pathway is called a necessary cause, because without it, disease does not occur.
Causation A number of models of disease causation have been proposed. Responsibility of primary prevention; Community and public health nurses are in the front line to assess a person, family, and communities for epidemiologic agents, susceptible hosts, and favorable environments.
Journal of Radiologic Technology, Jan 1; 84 3 pp.
The individual factors are called component causes.Concepts of Epidemiology (HIV) Mun Kang Grand Canyon University Concept in Community and Public Health NRS V Colleen Darrow June 08, HIV Communicable diseases are global health issues nowadays as the world become globalized by increasing international travel and business.
1 Epidemiology Key Terms and Core Concepts Epidemiology: The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states in specified populations, and the application of this study to control. Increasing awareness of HIV status represents the first step in improving the HIV care cascade, also called the HIV care continuum, which is a model for identifying issues and opportunities related to the delivery of HIV services to people living with HIV in the United States.
Concepts of Epidemiology(HIV) Grand Canyon University Concept in Community and Public Health NRS HIV. Communicable diseases are global health issues nowadays as the world become globalized by increasing international travel and business.
Communicable diseases are global health issues nowadays as the world become globalized by increasing international travel and business. Among many of communicable diseases, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is considered to be one of the most severe communicable diseases worldwide.
HIV Epidemiology John Lamb Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRSV June 3, HIV Epidemiology The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that is similar to other types of viruses, such as the common cold or the influenza virus, but there is one aspect that is very different.Download