He made Ravenna a center of Romano-Greek culture of art and his court fostered a flowering of literature and philosophy in Latin.
The son of Philip II, known as Alexander the Greatinvaded neighboring Persiatoppled and incorporated its domains, as well as invading Egypt and going as far off as Indiaincreasing contact with people and cultures in these regions that marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period.
Late Antiquity and Migration Period[ edit ] Main articles: The western provinces soon were to be dominated by three great powers: The Diadochi fought against each other only three major kingdoms remained: This meant that in general more power and responsibilities were left to local lords.
Bythe provinces of EgyptPalestine and Syria were lost to the Muslim forcesfollowed by Hispania and southern Italy in the 7th and 8th centuries see Muslim conquests. Middle Eastern trade routes along the Indian Ocean, and the Silk Road through the Gobi Desert, provided limited economic and cultural contact between Asian and European civilizations.
Tithes or rents were paid to the lord, who in turn owed resources, and armed men in times of war, to his lord, perhaps a regional prince. Barbarian pressure on the frontiers hastened internal dissolution. The development of the stirrup and the breeding of horses strong enough to carry a fully armed archer made the nomads a constant threat to the more settled civilizations.
The eastern empire, now known as the Byzantine Empirewith its capital at Constantinoplewould continue for another thousand years, until Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in In the 4th century, the emperors Diocletian and Constantine were able to slow down the process of decline by splitting the empire into a Western part with a capital in Rome and an Eastern part with the capital in Byzantium, or Constantinople now Istanbul.
Hellenic infighting left Greek city states vulnerable, and Philip II of Macedon united the Greek city states under his control.
After the death of Alexander, his empire split into multiple kingdoms ruled by his generals, the Diadochi. At some point during the ensuing Greco-Persian Warsnamely during the Second Persian invasion of Greeceand precisely after the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisiumalmost all of Greece to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth had been overrun by the Persians,  but the Greek city states reached a decisive victory at the Battle of Plataea.
Successful regional empires were also established in the Americasarising from cultures established as early as BCE. Decline of the Roman Empire[ edit ] Main articles: A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III The Hellenic civilisation was a collection of city-states or poleis with different governments and cultures that achieved notable developments in government, philosophy, science, mathematics, politics, sports, theatre and music.
Ptolemaic Egyptthe Seleucid Empire and Macedonia kingdom. First governed by kingsthen as a senatorial republic the Roman RepublicRome finally became an empire at the end of the 1st century BC, under Augustus and his authoritarian successors.
Declines, falls and resurgence The ancient empires faced common problems associated with maintaining huge armies and supporting a central bureaucracy. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in AD, under the emperor Trajan The Roman Empire had its centre in the Mediterranean, controlling all the countries on its shores; the northern border was marked by the Rhine and Danube rivers.
The ongoing invasions and boundary disputes usually meant a more risky and varying life than that under the empire. However, the levels of hierarchy were varied over time and place.
Pantheon, Romenow a Catholic church The gradual break-up of the Roman Empirespanning several centuries after the 2nd century CE, coincided with the spread of Christianity outward from the Middle East.
This allowed Africa to join the Southeast Asia trading system, bringing it contact with Asia; this, along with Muslim culture, resulted in the Swahili culture.View ccot chart from CHEMISTRY Honors Che at Carmel High School.
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