Formerly a Protestant province of Spain, the Netherlands was determined to become a commercial power and saw exploration as a means to that end. The Australian Charles Sturt resolved the problem by an imaginative journey made in — Croix and other islands in the cluster of the Virgin Islands.
After the Battle of Buxar inthe Company acquired the civil rights of administration in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II ; it marked the beginning of its formal rule, which was to engulf eventually most of India and extinguish the Moghul rule and dynasty itself in less than a century.
Henry wished to know how far Muslim territories in Africa extended, hoping to bypass them and trade directly with West Africa by sea, find allies in legendary Christian lands to the south  like the long-lost Christian kingdom of Prester John  and to probe whether it was possible to reach the Indies by sea, the source of the lucrative spice trade.
Portugal, Spain, France, and England were transformed from small territories into nation-states with centralized authority in the hands of monarchs who were able to direct and finance overseas exploration.
European sailing had been primarily close to land cabotageguided by portolan charts. Colonies from the defeated empires were transferred to the newly founded League of Nationswhich itself redistributed it to the victorious powers as "mandates".
Most were Italians, as trade between Europe and the Middle East was controlled mainly by the Maritime republics. Another explorer, the Australian John Oxleyin observed: Unlike Africa or Asia the Caribbean islanders had little to trade with the Spanish ships. During the first part of the 20th century, while China was still subject to various European imperialisms, Japan became an imperialist power, conquering what it called a " Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere ".
Henry hoped to form an alliance with Prester John to fight the Muslims. The company, however, was not successful, and in the king took direct control of New France.
From there, Cabot explored southward, perhaps encouraged to do so, even if seeking a westward passage, by ice in the Strait of Belle Isle. China was opened to Western influence starting with the First and Second Opium Wars —; — Did he believe to the end that he indeed had reached Cathay, or did he, however dimly, perceive that he had found a New World?
Ferdinand Magellan had served in the East Indies as a young man. They probably reached the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland; some think that the farthest point south reached by the settlers, as described in the sagas, fits best with Maryland or Virginiabut others contend that the lands about the Gulf of St.
He sailed through Torres Straitrecognizing as he did so that New Guinea was an island. The next crucial breakthrough was inwhen Bartolomeu Dias rounded the southern tip of Africa, which he named "Cape of Storms" Cabo das Tormentasanchoring at Mossel Bay and then sailing east as far as the mouth of the Great Fish Riverproving that the Indian Ocean was accessible from the Atlantic.
Soon trading depots, known as factories, were built along the African coast, at the strategic entrances to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulfand along the shores of the Indian peninsula.
After visiting Java they sailed through the Strait of Malacca again proving the error of Ptolemy ; and, landing at Hormuz, they traveled cross-country to Armeniaand so home to Venicewhich they reached in The traders, for the most part Spaniards, established land portages from harbours on the Caribbean to harbours on the west coast of Central and South America; from the Pacific coast ports of the Americas, they then set a course westward to the Philippines.
Ten days later they reached the Philippineswhere Magellan was killed in a local quarrel. It proved to be an extremely difficult one: His plan was in accord with Spanish hopes; five Spanish ships were fitted out in Sevilla, and in August they sailed under his command first to the Cape Verde Islands and thence to Brazil.
Technological advancements that were important to the Age of Exploration were the adoption of the magnetic compass and advances in ship design. During the voyage he discovered the mouth of the Orinoco River on the north coast of South America now Venezuela and thought that the huge quantity of fresh water coming from it could only be from a continental land mass, which he was certain was the Asian mainland.
The great southern continent, which Captain Cook demonstrated could not lie in the South Pacific, lay there neglected for some 50 years.could sail faster and instruments, like the quadrant, they started the Age of Exploration.
Portuguese exploration At the end of the 15th century the Portuguese started to explore the west coast of Africa. They set up trading posts and collected gold and silver. They. Age of Exporation. The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe.
The Age of Discovery. In the years from the midth to the midth century, a combination of circumstances stimulated men to seek new routes, and it was new routes rather than new lands that filled the minds of kings and commoners, scholars and seamen.
From around A.D. to the 11th century, a vast number of Scandinavians left their homelands to seek their fortunes elsewhere. These seafaring warriors–known collectively as Vikings or Norsemen.
Modern state global colonialism, or imperialism, began in the 15th century with the "Age of Discovery", led by Portuguese, and then by the Spanish exploration of the Americas, the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and East Asia.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.Download